Gaza's Health Ministry said Friday that four were killed in one location, where the Israeli military said it opened fire on a crowed of Palestinians who breached the fence and approached an army post.
The Palestinian deaths bring to around 200 the number of Gazans killed since the border protests began on March 30, according to Palestinian Health Ministry figures.
Israeli soldiers also wounded scores of others.
Israeli army spokesman Jonathan Conricus said on Twitter an "organised attack" had involved around 20 Palestinians crossing the border after an explosive device destroyed a portion of the fence.
Palestinian mourners across the Gaza Strip have held funerals for seven protesters killed a day earlier.
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Israeli security personnel have been deployed in large numbers around the Palestinian village of Khan al-Ahmar, sources said.
In addition, 10 fires broke out in southern Israel which were started by incendiary balloons launched over the border from Gaza, according to The Times of Israel.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) said about 15,000 Palestinians gathered along fence.
"In addition, Hamas continues to welcome any terrorist attack and encourages the Palestinians, residents of the West Bank, to carry out attacks against Israeli citizens".
Settlements Israel has built in the West Bank, where Palestinians have limited self-rule, are deemed illegal by most countries.
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The change in attitude comes after seven Palestinians were killed in Friday's protests as well as the murder of a Palestinian woman by settlers in the West Bank as she was driving with her husband.
The protesters are demanding to be allowed to return to lands now inside Israel, from which their families fled or were displaced during the 1948 war surrounding the creation of the Jewish state.
Israel accuses the enclave's Islamist rulers Hamas of leading the protests and using them as a cover for attacks.
They added that Hamas leader Ismail Haniya also attended the protests east of Gaza City and hailed the ongoing demonstrations.
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He has been critical the monarchy's continued arrest of critics on both the left and right, despite its professed reforms. The issue threatened the strong relationship the Trump administration has constructed with Mohammed Bin Salman .