Alves, a former speaker of the Chamber of Deputies, was tourism minister under President Dilma Rousseff and Temer, who assumed the country's top post past year when Rousseff was removed for illegally managing the federal budget.
If found guilty, Temer is expected to appeal and delay the process for months.
Defense attorneys argue that evidence in the case was submitted long ago, and say the court shouldn't be able to consider new revelations that emerged from plea bargains by 77 executives at the huge construction company Odebrecht, one of the businesses at the center of a sprawling investigation into kickbacks and bribes at the state-run oil company Petrobras.
Both Rousseff and Temer claim innocence of the allegations leveled against them.
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Temer, who received the questions on Monday, has 24 hours to respond to them in writing, Xinhua news agency reported on Tuesday.
The deadline will come shortly after the beginning of an unrelated electoral court trial that could also affect Temer's ability to stay in office.
Military Police stand guard in front of a banner with text written in Portuguese that reads "Free Motherland" outside the headquarters building of the Superior Electoral Court, in Brasilia, Brazil, Tuesday, June 6, 2017.
- Lame duck -If Temer is convicted by the electoral court, he can appeal, but he'd still face the ongoing parallel corruption probe and his grip on power may become untenable.
The results of the 2014 presidential elections are being questioned by the PSDB (Brazilian Social Democrat Party) that allege there were some irregularities in the winning ticket's donations, including suspicion that the Rousseff-Temer campaign received funds from the mega-corruption scheme dubbed Operação Lava Jato (Car Wash Operation).
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Posting on Instagram, she captioned a picture of the Eiffel Tower with: "First show back tonight". Je t'aime", the Dangerous Woman singer wrote on her Twitter account following the concert.
"Not Temer. We want these people to leave the Brazilian political scene and let the people choose a leader directly, someone who will take the country where the people want it to go, via general and direct (elections) for President and the National Congress".
Police in Brazil arrested the country's former tourism minister Tuesday in a probe over alleged corruption linked to one of its 2014 World Cup football stadiums, media reports said.
The owner of JBS reportedly turned over a tape in which Temer can seemingly be heard signing off on bribes and indicating that Rocha Loures could help the company with certain issues.
Brasilia is swirling with reports that Mr Janot plans to file a request for the Supreme Court to accept formal corruption and obstruction of justice charges soon, triggering a trial. On Tuesday, Brazil's top court rejected a petition by Loures to be released from jail. Temer's allies fear he may strike a plea bargain agreement with prosecutors, offering testimony against the president in return for leniency, according to a member of Temer's cabinet.
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The country has repeatedly violated a United Nations ban on ballistic missile tests, doing so even as recently as earlier this week .